Human Sectional Anatomy 4th Edition PDF

Human Sectional Anatomy 4th Edition PDF

Human Sectional Anatomy 4th Edition PDF

Human Sectional Anatomy 4th Edition PDF


  1. Human Sectional Anatomy 4th Edition PDF Free Download
  2. Human Sectional Anatomy 4th Edition PDF
  3. Human Sectional Anatomy 4th Edition Ebook


The study of sectional anatomy of the human
body goes back to the earliest days of systematic
topographical anatomy. The beautiful drawings of
the sagittal sections of the male and female trunk
and of the pregnant uterus by Leonardo da Vinci
(1452–1519) are well known. Among his figures,
which were based on some 30 dissections, are a
number of transverse sections of the lower limb.
These constitute the first known examples of the use
of cross-sections for the study of gross anatomy and
anticipate modern technique by several hundred
years. In the absence of hardening reagents or
methods of freezing, sectional anatomy was used
seldom by Leonardo (O’Malley and Saunders, 1952).

Andreas Vesalius pictured transverse sections of
the brain in his Fabrica published in 1543 and in
the seventeenth century portrayals of sections of
various parts of the body, including the brain, eye
and the genitalia, were made by Vidius, Bartholin,
de Graaf and others. Drawings of sagittal section
anatomy were used to illustrate surgical works in the
eighteenth century, for example those of Antonio
Scarpa of Pavia and Peter Camper of Leyden. William
Smellie, one of the fathers of British midwifery,
published his magnificent Anatomical Tables in 1754,
mostly drawn by Riemsdyk, which comprised mainly
sagittal sections; William Hunter’s illustrations of the
human gravid uterus are also well known.
The obstacle to detailed sectional anatomical
studies was, of course, the problem of fixation
of tissues during the cutting process. De Riemer,
a Dutch anatomist, published an atlas of human
transverse sections in 1818, which were obtained by
freezing the cadaver. The other technique developed
during the early nineteenth century was the use of
gypsum to envelop the parts and to retain the organs
in their anatomical position – a method used by the
Weber brothers in 1836.
Pirogoff, a well-known Russian surgeon, produced
his massive five-volume cross-sectional anatomy
between 1852 and 1859, which was illustrated with
213 plates. He used the freezing technique, which he
claimed (falsely, as noted above) to have introduced
as a novel method of fixation…


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