High Yield Embryology 5th Edition PDF

High Yield Embryology 5th Edition PDF

High Yield Embryology 5th Edition PDF

11.25 MB PDF

Table of Contents

1- Prefertilization Events 1
I. Gametes (Oocytes and Spermatozoa) 1
II. Meiosis 1
III. Female Gametogenesis (Oogenesis) 1
IV. Hormonal Control of the Female Reproductive Cycle 3
V. Male Gametogenesis (Spermatogenesis) 4
VI. Clinical Considerations 4

2- Week 1 (Days 1–7) 7
I. Overview 7
II. Fertilization 7
III. Cleavage 8
IV. Blastocyst Formation 9
V. Implantation 9
VI. Clinical Considerations 9

3- Week 2 (Days 8–14) 14
I. Embryoblast 14
II. Trophoblast 14
III. Extraembryonic Mesoderm 14
IV. Clinical Considerations 15

4- Embryonic Period (Weeks 3–8) 18
I. Introduction 18
II. Gastrulation 18
III. Clinical Considerations 20

5- Placenta, Amniotic Fluid, and Umbilical Cord 23
I. Placenta 23
II. The Placenta as an Endocrine Organ 24
III. The Placental Membrane 25
IV. Amniotic Fluid 27
V. Umbilical Cord 28
VI. Vasculogenesis 28
VII. Hematopoiesis 29
VIII. Fetal Circulation 30

6- Cardiovascular System 33
I. Formation of Heart Tube 33
II. Primitive Heart Tube Dilatations 33
III. The Aorticopulmonary (AP) Septum 34
IV. The Atrial Septum 36
V. The Atrioventricular (AV) Septum 38
VI. The Interventricular (IV) Septum 40
VII. Development of the Arterial System 41
VIII. Development of the Venous System 41

7- Digestive System 44
I. Primitive Gut Tube 44
II. Foregut Derivatives 45
III. Esophagus 45
IV. Stomach 46
V. Liver 47
VI. Gall Bladder and Bile Ducts 48
VII. Pancreasm48
VIII. Upper Duodenum 50
IX. Midgut Derivatives 50
X. Lower Duodenum 50
XI. Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum, Appendix, Ascending Colon, and Proximal
Two-Thirds of Transverse Colon 50
XII. Hindgut Derivatives 53
XIII. Distal One-Third of Transverse Colon, Descending Colon, Sigmoid Colon 53
XIV. Rectum and Upper Anal Canal 53
XV. The Anal Canal 55
XVI. Mesenteries 56

8- Urinary System 59
I. Overview 59
II. The Pronephros 59
III. The Mesonephros 59
IV. The Metanephros 59
V. Development of the Metanephros 60
VI. Relative Ascent of the Kidneys 62
VII. Blood Supply of the Kidneys 62
VIII. Development of the Urinary Bladder 62
IX. Clinical Considerations 62

9- Female Reproductive System 67
I. The Indifferent Embryo 67
II. Development of the Gonads 67
III. Development of Genital Ducts 68
IV. Development of the Primordia of External Genitalia 68
V. Clinical Considerations 70

10- Male Reproductive System 74
I. The Indifferent Embryo 74
II. Development of the Gonads 74
III. Development of the Genital Ducts 75
IV. Development of the Primordia of External Genitalia. 75
V. Clinical Considerations 77
VI. Summary Table of Female and Male Reproductive Systems Development 82

11- Respiratory System 84
I. Upper Respiratory System 84
II. Lower Respiratory System 84
III. Development of the Trachea. 84
IV. Development of the Bronchi. 86
V. Development of the Lungs. 87

12- Head and Neck. 91
I. Pharyngeal Apparatus. 91
II. Development of the Thyroid Gland.91
III. Development of the Tongue. 94
IV. Development of the Face.95
V. Development of the Palate. 95
VI. Clinical Considerations 96

13- Nervous System .100
I. Development of the Neural Tube.100
II. Neural Crest Cellsn100
III. Vesicle Development of the Neural Tube. 102
IV. Development of the Spinal Cord. 104
V. Development of the Hypophysis (Pituitary Gland).105
VI. Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System. 106

14- Ear. 111
I. Overview.111
II. The Internal Ear.111
III. The Membranous and Bony Labyrinths.113
IV. The Middle Ear.113
V. The External Ear.114
VI. Congenital Malformations of the Ear.114

15- Eye. 117
I. Development of the Optic Vesicle 117
II. Development of Other Eye Structures.120
III. Congenital Malformations of the Eye 121

16- Body Cavities .124
I. Formation of the Intraembryonic Coelom. 124
II. Partitioning of the Intraembryonic Coelom. 124
III. Positional Changes of the Diaphragm.125
IV. Clinical Considerations 126

17- Pregnancy.128
I. Endocrinology of Pregnancy 128
II. Pregnancy Dating.129
III. Pregnancy Milestones.130
IV. Prenatal Diagnostic Procedures.130
V. Fetal Distress During Labor (Intrapartum) 132
VI. The APGAR Score.132
VII. Puerperium. 133
VIII. Lactation 133

18- Teratology 134
I. Introduction 134
II. Infectious Agents.135
III. TORCH Infections.137
IV. Category X Drugs (Absolute Contraindication in Pregnancy) 137
V. Category D Drugs (Definite Evidence of Risk to Fetus). 139
VI. Chemical Agents 139
VII. Recreational Drugs.140
VIII. Ionizing Radiation 140
IX. Selected Photographs 140

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