# Fundamentals Of Physics 11th Edition PDF

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*Fundamentals of Physics* is renowned for its superior problem-solving skills development, reasoning skills development, and emphasis on conceptual understanding. In this course, interactive pathways of online learning alternate between short content presentations such as video or readings and carefully guided student engagements to simulate a discourse style of teaching 24/7.

## ABOUT THE AUTHOR

**David Halliday** is associated with the University of Pittsburgh as Professor Emeritus. As department chair in 1960, he and Robert Resnick collaborated on *Physics for Students of Science and Engineering* and then on *Fundamentals of Physics*. *Fundamentals* is currently in its eighth edition and has since been handed over from Halliday and Resnick to Jearl Walker. Dr. Halliday is retired and resides in Seattle.

**Robert Resnick** is professor emeritus at Rensselaer and the former Edward P. Hamilton Distinguished Professor of Science Education, 1974-93. Together with his co-author David Halliday, he revolutionized physics education with their now famous textbook on general physics, still one of the most highly regarded texts in the field today.

**Jearl Walker**, professor of physics at Cleveland State University, received his BS in physics from MIT in 1967 and his PhD in physics from University of Maryland in 1973. His book *The Flying Circus of Physics* was published 30 years ago, has been translated into at least 10 languages, and is still being sold world wide. For 16 years he toured his Flying Circus talk throughout the U.S. and Canada, introducing such physics stunts as the bed-of-nails demonstration and the walking-on-hot-coals demonstration to countless physics teachers, who then proceeded to hurt themselves when they repeated the stunts in their own classrooms. These talks led to his PBS television show Kinetic Karnival which ran nationally for years and which earned an Emmy.

## TABLE OF CONTENTS

**1 Measurement 1**

1-1 Measuring Things, Including Lengths 1

1-2 Time 5

1-3 Mass 6

Review & Summary 8 Problems 8

**2 Motion Along A Straight Line 13**

2-1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity 13

2-2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 18

2-3 Acceleration 20

2-4 Constant Acceleration 23

2-5 Free-Fall Acceleration 27

2-6 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis 29

Review & Summary 30

Questions 31

Problems 32

**3 Vectors 40**

3-1 Vectors and Their Components 40

3-2 Unit Vectors, Adding Vectors By Components 46

3-3 Multiplying Vectors 50

Review & Summary 55 Questions 56 Problems 57

**4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions 62**

4-1 Position and Displacement 62

4-2 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity 64

4-3 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration 67

4-4 Projectile Motion 70

4-5 Uniform Circular Motion 76

4-6 Relative Motion in One Dimension 78

4-7 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions 80

Review & Summary 81 Questions 82 Problems 84

**5 Force and Motion—I 94**

5-1 Newton’s First and Second Laws 94

5-2 Some Particular Forces 102

5-3 Applying Newton’s Laws 106

Review & Summary 114 Questions 114 Problems 116

**6 Force and Motion—II 124**

6-1 Friction 124

6-2 The Drag Force and Terminal Speed 130

6-3 Uniform Circular Motion 133

Review & Summary 138

Questions 139

Problems 140

**7 Kinetic Energy and Work 149**

7-1 Kinetic Energy 149

7-2 Work and Kinetic Energy 151

7-3 Work Done By the Gravitational Force 155

7-4 Work Done By A Spring Force 159

7-5 Work Done By A General Variable Force 162

7-6 Power 166

Review & Summary 168

Questions 169

Problems 170

**8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy 177**

8-1 Potential Energy 177

8-2 Conservation of Mechanical Energy 184

8-3 Reading A Potential Energy Curve 187

8-4 Work Done on A System By An External Force 191

8-5 Conservation of Energy 195

Review & Summary 199

Questions 200

Problems 202

**9 Center of Mass and Linear Momentum 214**

9-1 Center of Mass 214

9-2 Newton’s Second Law for A System of Particles 220

9-3 Linear Momentum 224

9-4 Collision and Impulse 226

9-5 Conservation of Linear Momentum 230

9-6 Momentum and Kinetic Energy in Collisions 233

9-7 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 237

9-8 Collisions in Two Dimensions 240

9-9 Systems With Varying Mass: A Rocket 241

Review & Summary 243

Questions 245

Problems 246

**10 Rotation 257**

10-1 Rotational Variables 257

10-2 Rotation With Constant Angular Acceleration 266

10-3 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables 268

10-4 Kinetic Energy of Rotation 271

10-5 Calculating the Rotational Inertia 273

10-6 Torque 277

10-7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation 279

10-8 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy 282

Review & Summary 285

Questions 286

Problems 287

**11 Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum 295**

11-1 Rolling As Translation and Rotation Combined 295

11-2 Forces and Kinetic Energy of Rolling 298

11-3 The Yo-Yo 301

11-4 Torque Revisited 302

11-5 Angular Momentum 305

11-6 Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form 307

11-7 Angular Momentum of A Rigid Body 310

11-8 Conservation of Angular Momentum 312

11-9 Precession of A Gyroscope 317

Review & Summary 318

Questions 319

Problems 320

**12 Equilibrium and Elasticity 327**

12-1 Equilibrium 327

12-2 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium 332

12-3 Elasticity 338

Review & Summary 343

Questions 343

Problems 345

**13 Gravitation 354**

13-1 Newton’s Law of Gravitation 354

13-2 Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition 357

13-3 Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface 359

13-4 Gravitation Inside Earth 362

13-5 Gravitational Potential Energy 364

13-6 Planets and Satellites: Kepler’s Laws 368

13-7 Satellites: Orbits and Energy 371

13-8 Einstein and Gravitation 374

Review & Summary 376

Questions 377

Problems 378

**14 Fluids 386**

14-1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure 386

14-2 Fluids At Rest 388

14-3 Measuring Pressure 392

14-4 Pascal’s Principle 393

14-5 Archimedes’ Principle 394

14-6 The Equation of Continuity 398

14-7 Bernoulli’s Equation 401

Review & Summary 405

Questions 405

Problems 406

**15 Oscillations 413**

15-1 Simple Harmonic Motion 413

15-2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion 421

15-3 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator 423

15-4 Pendulums, Circular Motion 424

15-5 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion 430

15-6 Forced Oscillations and Resonance 432

Review & Summary 434

Questions 434

Problems 436

**16 Waves—I 444**

16-1 Transverse Waves 444

16-2 Wave Speed on A Stretched String 452

16-3 Energy and Power of A Wave Traveling Along A String 454

16-4 The Wave Equation 456

16-5 Interference of Waves 458

16-6 Phasors 462

16-7 Standing Waves and Resonance 465

Review & Summary 470

Questions 471

Problems 472

**17 Waves—II 479**

17-1 Speed of Sound 479

17-2 Traveling Sound Waves 482

17-3 Interference 485

17-4 Intensity and Sound Level 488

17-5 Sources of Musical Sound 492

17-6 Beats 496

17-7 The Doppler Effect 498

17-8 Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves 503

Review & Summary 504

Questions 505

Problems 506

**18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics 514**

18-1 Temperature 514

18-2 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales 518

18-3 Thermal Expansion 520

18-4 Absorption of Heat 522

18-5 The First Law of Thermodynamics 528

18-6 Heat Transfer Mechanisms 534

Review & Summary 538

Questions 540

Problems 541

**19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 549**

19-1 Avogadro’s Number 549

19-2 Ideal Gases 550

19-3 Pressure, Temperature, and Rms Speed 554

19-4 Translational Kinetic Energy 557

19-5 Mean Free Path 558

19-6 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds 560

19-7 The Molar Specific Heats of An Ideal Gas 564

19-8 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Specific Heats 568

19-9 The Adiabatic Expansion of An Ideal Gas 571

Review & Summary 575

Questions 576

Problems 577

**20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 583**

20-1 Entropy 583

20-2 Entropy in the Real World: Engines 590

20-3 Refrigerators and Real Engines 595

20-4 A Statistical View of Entropy 598

Review & Summary 602

Questions 603

Problems 604

**21 Coulomb’s Law 609**

21-1 Coulomb’s Law 609

21-2 Charge Is Quantized 619

21-3 Charge Is Conserved 621

Review & Summary 622

Questions 623

Problems 624

**22 Electric Fields 630**

22-1 The Electric Field 630

22-2 The Electric Field Due To A Charged Particle 633

22-3 The Electric Field Due To A Dipole 635

22-4 The Electric Field Due To A Line of Charge 638

22-5 The Electric Field Due To A Charged Disk 643

22-6 A Point Charge in An Electric Field 645

22-7 A Dipole in An Electric Field 647

Review & Summary 650

Questions 651

Problems 652

**23 Gauss’ Law 659**

23-1 Electric Flux 659

23-2 Gauss’ Law 664

23-3 A Charged Isolated Conductor 668

23-4 Applying Gauss’ Law: Cylindrical Symmetry 671

23-5 Applying Gauss’ Law: Planar Symmetry 673

23-6 Applying Gauss’ Law: Spherical Symmetry 675

Review & Summary 677

Questions 677

Problems 679

**24 Electric Potential 685**

24-1 Electric Potential 685

24-2 Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field 690

24-3 Potential Due To A Charged Particle 694

24-4 Potential Due To An Electric Dipole 697

24-5 Potential Due To A Continuous Charge Distribution 698

24-6 Calculating the Field from the Potential 701

24-7 Electric Potential Energy of A System of Charged Particles 703

24-8 Potential of A Charged Isolated Conductor 706

Review & Summary 707

Questions 708

Problems 710

**25 Capacitance 717**

25-1 Capacitance 717

25-2 Calculating the Capacitance 719

25-3 Capacitors in Parallel and in Series 723

25-4 Energy Stored in An Electric Field 728

25-5 Capacitor With A Dielectric 731

25-6 Dielectrics and Gauss’ Law 735

Review & Summary 738

Questions 738

Problems 739

**26 Current and Resistance 745**

26-1 Electric Current 745

26-2 Current Density 748

26-3 Resistance and Resistivity 752

26-4 Ohm’s Law 756

26-5 Power, Semiconductors, Superconductors 760

Review & Summary 763

Questions 764

Problems 765

**27 Circuits 771**

27-1 Single-Loop Circuits 771

27-2 Multiloop Circuits 781

27-3 The Ammeter and the Voltmeter 788

27-4 *Rc *Circuits 788

Review & Summary 793

Questions 793

Problems 795

**28 Magnetic Fields 803**

28-1 Magnetic Fields and the Definition of *B*→ 803

28-2 Crossed Fields: Discovery of the Electron 808

28-3 Crossed Fields: The Hall Effect 810

28-4 A Circulating Charged Particle 814

28-5 Cyclotrons and Synchrotrons 817

28-6 Magnetic Force on A Current-Carrying Wire 820

28-7 Torque on A Current Loop 822

28-8 The Magnetic Dipole Moment 824

Review & Summary 827

Questions 827

Problems 829

**29 Magnetic Fields Due To Currents 836**

29-1 Magnetic Field Due To A Current 836

29-2 Force Between Two Parallel Currents 842

29-3 Ampere’s Law 844

29-4 Solenoids and Toroids 848

29-5 A Current-Carrying Coil As A Magnetic Dipole 851

Review & Summary 854

Questions 855

Problems 856

**30 Induction and Inductance 864**

30-1 Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law 864

30-2 Induction and Energy Transfers 871

30-3 Induced Electric Fields 874

30-4 Inductors and Inductance 879

30-5 Self-Induction 881

30-6 *Rl *Circuits 882

30-7 Energy Stored in A Magnetic Field 887

30-8 Energy Density of A Magnetic Field 889

30-9 Mutual Induction 890

Review & Summary 893

Questions 893

Problems 895

**31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current 903**

31-1 *Lc *Oscillations 903

31-2 Damped Oscillations in An *Rlc *Circuit 910

31-3 Forced Oscillations of Three Simple Circuits 912

31-4 The Series *Rlc *Circuit 921

31-5 Power in Alternating-Current Circuits 927

31-6 Transformers 930

Review & Summary 933 Questions 934 Problems 935

**32 Maxwell’s Equations; Magnetism Of Matter 941**

32-1 Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields 941

32-2 Induced Magnetic Fields 943

32-3 Displacement Current 946

32-4 Magnets 950

32-5 Magnetism and Electrons 952

32-6 Diamagnetism 957

32-7 Paramagnetism 959

32-8 Ferromagnetism 961

Review & Summary 964

Questions 965

Problems 967

**33 Electromagnetic Waves 972**

33-1 Electromagnetic Waves 972

33-2 Energy Transport and the Poynting Vector 980

33-3 Radiation Pressure 983

33-4 Polarization 985

33-5 Reflection and Refraction 990

33-6 Total Internal Reflection 996

33-7 Polarization By Reflection 997

Review & Summary 999

Questions 1000

Problems 1001

**34 Images 1010**

34-1 Images and Plane Mirrors 1010

34-2 Spherical Mirrors 1014

34-3 Spherical Refracting Surfaces 1020

34-4 Thin Lenses 1023

34-5 Optical Instruments 1030

34-6 Three Proofs 1033

Review & Summary 1036

Questions 1037

Problems 1038

**35 Interference 1047**

35-1 Light As A Wave 1047

35-2 Young’s Interference Experiment 1053

35-3 Interference and Double-Slit Intensity 1059

35-4 Interference from Thin Films 1063

35-5 Michelson’s Interferometer 1070

Review & Summary 1072

Questions 1072

Problems 1074

**36 Diffraction 1081**

36-1 Single-Slit Diffraction 1081

36-2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction 1086

36-3 Diffraction By A Circular Aperture 1090

36-4 Diffraction By A Double Slit 1094

36-5 Diffraction Gratings 1098

36-6 Gratings: Dispersion and Resolving Power 1101

36-7 X-Ray Diffraction 1104

Review & Summary 1107

Questions 1107

Problems 1108

**37 Relativity 1116**

37-1 Simultaneity and Time Dilation 1116

37-2 The Relativity of Length 1125

37-3 The Lorentz Transformation 1129

37-4 The Relativity of Velocities 1133

37-5 Doppler Effect for Light 1134

37-6 Momentum and Energy 1137

Review & Summary 1143

Questions 1144

Problems 1145

**38 Photons and Matter Waves 1153**

38-1 The Photon, the Quantum of Light 1153

38-2 The Photoelectric Effect 1155

38-3 Photons, Momentum, Compton Scattering, Light Interference 1158

38-4 The Birth of Quantum Physics 1164

38-5 Electrons and Matter Waves 1166

38-6 Schrödinger’s Equation 1170

38-7 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 1172

38-8 Reflection from A Potential Step 1174

38-9 Tunneling Through A Potential Barrier 1176

Review & Summary 1179

Questions 1180

Problems 1181

**39 More About Matter Waves 1186**

39-1 Energies of A Trapped Electron 1186

39-2 Wave Functions of A Trapped Electron 1191

39-3 An Electron in A Finite Well 1195

39-4 Two- and Three-Dimensional Electron Traps 1197

39-5 The Hydrogen Atom 1201

Review & Summary 1213

Questions 1213

Problems 1214

**40 All About Atoms 1219**

40-1 Properties of Atoms 1219

40-2 The Stern–Gerlach Experiment 1226

40-3 Magnetic Resonance 1229

40-4 Exclusion Principle and Multiple Electrons in A Trap 1230

40-5 Building the Periodic Table 1234

40-6 X Rays and the Ordering of the Elements 1236

40-7 Lasers 1240

Review & Summary 1245

Questions 1246

Problems 1247

**41 Conduction of Electricity in Solids 1252**

41-1 The Electrical Properties of Metals 1252

41-2 Semiconductors and Doping 1261

41-3 The *P-N *Junction and the Transistor 1265

Review & Summary 1271

Questions 1272

Problems 1272

**42 Nuclear Physics 1276**

42-1 Discovering the Nucleus 1276

42-2 Some Nuclear Properties 1279

42-3 Radioactive Decay 1286

42-4 Alpha Decay 1289

42-5 Beta Decay 1292

42-6 Radioactive Dating 1295

42-7 Measuring Radiation Dosage 1296

42-8 Nuclear Models 1297

Review & Summary 1300

Questions 1301

Problems 1302

**43 Energy from the Nucleus 1309**

43-1 Nuclear Fission 1309

43-2 The Nuclear Reactor 1316

43-3 A Natural Nuclear Reactor 1320

43-4 Thermonuclear Fusion: The Basic Process 1322

43-5 Thermonuclear Fusion in the Sun and Other Stars 1324

43-6 Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion 1326

Review & Summary 1329

Questions 1329

Problems 1330

**44 Quarks, Leptons, and the Big Bang 1334**

44-1 General Properties of Elementary Particles 1334

44-2 Leptons, Hadrons, and Strangeness 1343

44-3 Quarks and Messenger Particles 1349

44-4 Cosmology 1355

Review & Summary 1362

Questions 1362

Problems 1363

**Appendices**

A The International System of Units (SI) A-1

B Some Fundamental Constants of Physics A-3

C Some Astronomical Data A-4

D Conversion Factors A-5

E Mathematical Formulas A-9

F Properties of the Elements A-12

G Periodic Table of the Elements A-15

**Answers**

To Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems AN-1

Index I-1

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