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Even bad code can function. But if code isn’t clean, it can bring a development organization to its knees. Every year, countless hours and significant resources are lost because of poorly written code. But it doesn’t have to be that way.

Noted software expert Robert C. Martin presents a revolutionary paradigm with Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship. Martin has teamed up with his colleagues from Object Mentor to distill their best agile practice of cleaning code “on the fly” into a book that will instill within you the values of a software craftsman and make you a better programmer—but only if you work at it.

What kind of work will you be doing? You’ll be reading code—lots of code. And you will be challenged to think about what’s right about that code, and what’s wrong with it. More importantly, you will be challenged to reassess your professional values and your commitment to your craft.

Clean Code is divided into three parts. The first describes the principles, patterns, and practices of writing clean code. The second part consists of several case studies of increasing complexity. Each case study is an exercise in cleaning up code—of transforming a code base that has some problems into one that is sound and efficient. The third part is the payoff: a single chapter containing a list of heuristics and “smells” gathered while creating the case studies. The result is a knowledge base that describes the way we think when we write, read, and clean code.

Readers will come away from this book understanding

  • How to tell the difference between good and bad code
  • How to write good code and how to transform bad code into good code
  • How to create good names, good functions, good objects, and good classes
  • How to format code for maximum readability
  • How to implement complete error handling without obscuring code logic
  • How to unit test and practice test-driven development

This book is a must for any developer, software engineer, project manager, team lead, or systems analyst with an interest in producing better code.

Table of contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright Page
  3. Contents
  4. Foreword
  5. Introduction
  6. On the Cover
  7. Chapter 1: Clean Code
    1. There Will Be Code
    2. Bad Code
    3. The Total Cost of Owning a Mess
    4. The Grand Redesign in the Sky
    5. Attitude
    6. The Primal Conundrum
    7. The Art of Clean Code?
    8. What Is Clean Code?
    9. Schools of Thought
    10. We Are Authors
    11. The Boy Scout Rule
    12. Prequel and Principles
    13. Conclusion
    14. Bibliography
  8. Chapter 2: Meaningful Names
    1. Introduction
    2. Use Intention-Revealing Names
    3. Avoid Disinformation
    4. Make Meaningful Distinctions
    5. Use Pronounceable Names
    6. Use Searchable Names
    7. Avoid Encodings
    8. Hungarian Notation
    9. Member Prefixes
    10. Interfaces and Implementations
    11. Avoid Mental Mapping
    12. Class Names
    13. Method Names
    14. Don’t Be Cute
    15. Pick One Word per Concept
    16. Don’t Pun
    17. Use Solution Domain Names
    18. Use Problem Domain Names
    19. Add Meaningful Context
    20. Don’t Add Gratuitous Context
    21. Final Words
  9. Chapter 3: Functions
    1. Small!
    2. Blocks and Indenting
    3. Do One Thing
    4. Sections within Functions
    5. One Level of Abstraction per Function
    6. Reading Code from Top to Bottom: The Stepdown Rule
    7. Switch Statements
    8. Use Descriptive Names
    9. Function Arguments
    10. Common Monadic Forms
    11. Flag Arguments
    12. Dyadic Functions
    13. Triads
    14. Argument Objects
    15. Argument Lists
    16. Verbs and Keywords
    17. Have No Side Effects
    18. Output Arguments
    19. Command Query Separation
    20. Prefer Exceptions to Returning Error Codes
    21. Extract Try/Catch Blocks
    22. Error Handling Is One Thing
    23. The Dependency Magnet
    24. Don’t Repeat Yourself
    25. Structured Programming
    26. How Do You Write Functions Like This?
    27. Conclusion
    28. SetupTeardownIncluder
    29. Bibliography
  10. Chapter 4: Comments
    1. Comments Do Not Make Up for Bad Code
    2. Explain Yourself in Code
    3. Good Comments
    4. Legal Comments
    5. Informative Comments
    6. Explanation of Intent
    7. Clarification
    8. Warning of Consequences
    9. TODO Comments
    10. Amplification
    11. Javadocs in Public APIs
    12. Bad Comments
    13. Mumbling
    14. Redundant Comments
    15. Misleading Comments
    16. Mandated Comments
    17. Journal Comments
    18. Noise Comments
    19. Scary Noise
    20. Don’t Use a Comment When You Can Use a Function or a Variable
    21. Position Markers
    22. Closing Brace Comments
    23. Attributions and Bylines
    24. Commented-Out Code
    25. HTML Comments
    26. Nonlocal Information
    27. Too Much Information
    28. Inobvious Connection
    29. Function Headers
    30. Javadocs in Nonpublic Code
    31. Example
    32. Bibliography
  11. Chapter 5: Formatting
    1. The Purpose of Formatting
    2. Vertical Formatting
    3. The Newspaper Metaphor
    4. Vertical Openness Between Concepts
    5. Vertical Density
    6. Vertical Distance
    7. Vertical Ordering
    8. Horizontal Formatting
    9. Horizontal Openness and Density
    10. Horizontal Alignment
    11. Indentation
    12. Dummy Scopes
    13. Team Rules
    14. Uncle Bob’s Formatting Rules
  12. Chapter 6: Objects and Data Structures
    1. Data Abstraction
    2. Data/Object Anti-Symmetry
    3. The Law of Demeter
    4. Train Wrecks
    5. Hybrids
    6. Hiding Structure
    7. Data Transfer Objects
    8. Active Record
    9. Conclusion
    10. Bibliography
  13. Chapter 7: Error Handling
    1. Use Exceptions Rather Than Return Codes
    2. Write Your Try-Catch-Finally Statement First
    3. Use Unchecked Exceptions
    4. Provide Context with Exceptions
    5. Define Exception Classes in Terms of a Caller’s Needs
    6. Define the Normal Flow
    7. Don’t Return Null
    8. Don’t Pass Null
    9. Conclusion
    10. Bibliography
  14. Chapter 8: Boundaries
    1. Using Third-Party Code
    2. Exploring and Learning Boundaries
    3. Learning log4j
    4. Learning Tests Are Better Than Free
    5. Using Code That Does Not Yet Exist
    6. Clean Boundaries
    7. Bibliography
  15. Chapter 9: Unit Tests
    1. The Three Laws of TDD
    2. Keeping Tests Clean
    3. Tests Enable the -ilities
    4. Clean Tests
    5. Domain-Specific Testing Language
    6. A Dual Standard
    7. One Assert per Test
    8. Single Concept per Test
    9. F.I.R.S.T.
    10. Conclusion
    11. Bibliography
  16. Chapter 10: Classes
    1. Class Organization
    2. Encapsulation
    3. Classes Should Be Small!
    4. The Single Responsibility Principle
    5. Cohesion
    6. Maintaining Cohesion Results in Many Small Classes
    7. Organizing for Change
    8. Isolating from Change
    9. Bibliography
  17. Chapter 11: Systems
    1. How Would You Build a City?
    2. Separate Constructing a System from Using It
    3. Separation of Main
    4. Factories
    5. Dependency Injection
    6. Scaling Up
    7. Cross-Cutting Concerns
    8. Java Proxies
    9. Pure Java AOP Frameworks
    10. AspectJ Aspects
    11. Test Drive the System Architecture
    12. Optimize Decision Making
    13. Use Standards Wisely, When They Add Demonstrable Value
    14. Systems Need Domain-Specific Languages
    15. Conclusion
    16. Bibliography
  18. Chapter 12: Emergence
    1. Getting Clean via Emergent Design
    2. Simple Design Rule 1: Runs All the Tests
    3. Simple Design Rules 2–4: Refactoring
    4. No Duplication
    5. Expressive
    6. Minimal Classes and Methods
    7. Conclusion
    8. Bibliography
  19. Chapter 13: Concurrency
    1. Why Concurrency?
    2. Myths and Misconceptions
    3. Challenges
    4. Concurrency Defense Principles
    5. Single Responsibility Principle
    6. Corollary: Limit the Scope of Data
    7. Corollary: Use Copies of Data
    8. Corollary: Threads Should Be as Independent as Possible
    9. Know Your Library
    10. Thread-Safe Collections
    11. Know Your Execution Models
    12. Producer-Consumer
    13. Readers-Writers
    14. Dining Philosophers
    15. Beware Dependencies Between Synchronized Methods
    16. Keep Synchronized Sections Small
    17. Writing Correct Shut-Down Code Is Hard
    18. Testing Threaded Code
    19. Treat Spurious Failures as Candidate Threading Issues
    20. Get Your Nonthreaded Code Working First
    21. Make Your Threaded Code Pluggable
    22. Make Your Threaded Code Tunable
    23. Run with More Threads Than Processors
    24. Run on Different Platforms
    25. Instrument Your Code to Try and Force Failures
    26. Hand-Coded
    27. Automated
    28. Conclusion
    29. Bibliography
  20. Chapter 14: Successive Refinement
    1. Args Implementation
    2. How Did I Do This?
    3. Args: The Rough Draft
    4. So I Stopped
    5. On Incrementalism
    6. String Arguments
    7. Conclusion
  21. Chapter 15: JUnit Internals
    1. The JUnit Framework
    2. Conclusion
  22. Chapter 16: Refactoring SerialDate
    1. First, Make It Work
    2. Then Make It Right
    3. Conclusion
    4. Bibliography
  23. Chapter 17: Smells and Heuristics
    2. C1: Inappropriate Information
    3. C2: Obsolete Comment
    4. C3: Redundant Comment
    5. C4: Poorly Written Comment
    6. C5: Commented-Out Code
    7. Environment
    8. E1: Build Requires More Than One Step
    9. E2: Tests Require More Than One Step
    10. Functions
    11. F1: Too Many Arguments
    12. F2: Output Arguments
    13. F3: Flag Arguments
    14. F4: Dead Function
    15. General
    16. G1: Multiple Languages in One Source File
    17. G2: Obvious Behavior Is Unimplemented
    18. G3: Incorrect Behavior at the Boundaries
    19. G4: Overridden Safeties
    20. G5: Duplication
    21. G6: Code at Wrong Level of Abstraction
    22. G7: Base Classes Depending on Their Derivatives
    23. G8: Too Much Information
    24. G9: Dead Code
    25. G10: Vertical Separation
    26. G11: Inconsistency
    27. G12: Clutter
    28. G13: Artificial Coupling
    29. G14: Feature Envy
    30. G15: Selector Arguments
    31. G16: Obscured Intent
    32. G17: Misplaced Responsibility
    33. G18: Inappropriate Static
    34. G19: Use Explanatory Variables
    35. G20: Function Names Should Say What They Do
    36. G21: Understand the Algorithm
    37. G22: Make Logical Dependencies Physical
    38. G23: Prefer Polymorphism to If/Else or Switch/Case
    39. G24: Follow Standard Conventions
    40. G25: Replace Magic Numbers with Named Constants
    41. G26: Be Precise
    42. G27: Structure over Convention
    43. G28: Encapsulate Conditionals
    44. G29: Avoid Negative Conditionals
    45. G30: Functions Should Do One Thing
    46. G31: Hidden Temporal Couplings
    47. G32: Don’t Be Arbitrary
    48. G33: Encapsulate Boundary Conditions
    49. G34: Functions Should Descend Only One Level of Abstraction
    50. G35: Keep Configurable Data at High Levels
    51. G36: Avoid Transitive Navigation
    52. Java
    53. J1: Avoid Long Import Lists by Using Wildcards
    54. J2: Don’t Inherit Constants
    55. J3: Constants versus Enums
    56. Names
    57. N1: Choose Descriptive Names
    58. N2: Choose Names at the Appropriate Level of Abstraction
    59. N3: Use Standard Nomenclature Where Possible
    60. N4: Unambiguous Names
    61. N5: Use Long Names for Long Scopes
    62. N6: Avoid Encodings
    63. N7: Names Should Describe Side-Effects.
    64. Tests
    65. T1: Insufficient Tests
    66. T2: Use a Coverage Tool!
    67. T3: Don’t Skip Trivial Tests
    68. T4: An Ignored Test Is a Question about an Ambiguity
    69. T5: Test Boundary Conditions
    70. T6: Exhaustively Test Near Bugs
    71. T7: Patterns of Failure Are Revealing
    72. T8: Test Coverage Patterns Can Be Revealing
    73. T9: Tests Should Be Fast
    74. Conclusion
    75. Bibliography
  24. Appendix A: Concurrency II
    1. Client/Server Example
    2. The Server
    3. Adding Threading
    4. Server Observations
    5. Conclusion
    6. Possible Paths of Execution
    7. Number of Paths
    8. Digging Deeper
    9. Conclusion
    10. Knowing Your Library
    11. Executor Framework
    12. Nonblocking Solutions
    13. Nonthread-Safe Classes
    14. Dependencies Between Methods Can Break Concurrent Code
    15. Tolerate the Failure
    16. Client-Based Locking
    17. Server-Based Locking
    18. Increasing Throughput
    19. Single-Thread Calculation of Throughput
    20. Multithread Calculation of Throughput
    21. Deadlock
    22. Mutual Exclusion
    23. Lock & Wait
    24. No Preemption
    25. Circular Wait
    26. Breaking Mutual Exclusion
    27. Breaking Lock & Wait
    28. Breaking Preemption
    29. Breaking Circular Wait
    30. Testing Multithreaded Code
    31. Tool Support for Testing Thread-Based Code
    32. Conclusion
    33. Tutorial: Full Code Examples
    34. Client/Server Nonthreaded
    35. Client/Server Using Threads
  25. Appendix B:
  26. Appendix C: Cross References of Heuristics
  27. Epilogue
  28. Index
  29. Code Snippets

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